Pain Management in patients on long-term methadone
For patients managed on Suboxone® see StaffNet, Clinical Guideline Electronic Resource Directory and search in the 'central nervous system' section for guidelines on the management of drug misusers in Glasgow and Clyde acute hospital.
Inadequate treatment of pain in methadone-maintained patients commonly leads to disruptive behaviour by angry and frightened patients who then may discharge themselves against medical advice, often to the detriment of the patient's health.
Some general guidance until more detailed advice from a specialist can be sought:
- Methadone in maintenance doses does not have analgesic effects.
- Where possible do not interrupt daily methadone maintenance or change the patient's dose of methadone.
- Manage pain as described previously:
- Opioids should be used as needed and in conjunction with non-opioid analgesia.
- Titrate dose according to side effects and pain relief starting with a low dose initially, as the dose of methadone and the use of illicit drugs prior to admission may be unknown.
- These patients may eventually need higher and more frequent doses of analgesia.
- Do not use agonist / antagonist drugs such as pentazocine, buprenorphine.
- Cease the parenteral use of opioid analgesics as soon as possible and convert to oral preparations.
- These patients can be complex and their pain difficult to manage - contact the Acute Pain Team for further advice.
For opioid-induced side effects and management see Reversal of Opioid-induced Respiratory Depression.