In the tables below is brief guidance on the management of the following palliative care symptoms:
Encourage good oral hygiene with regular sips of water before considering saliva replacement.
Therapeutic choice: Saliva replacement gel e.g. Biotène Oralbalance® – use as required. See palliative care mouth care guidance at www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk.
|Excessive respiratory secretions|
Hyoscine butylbromide is first-line as it is a less sedating alternative to hyoscine hydrobromide.
Assess for cause and reverse as appropriate.
Refer to palliative care guidelines and seek advice from local Palliative Care team for further advice.
*Haloperidol can prolong QT interval and contraindications include: patients with prolonged QTc interval and in combination with other drugs that prolong QT interval. Where possible modifiable risk factors for QT interval prolongation should be minimised e.g. discontinue other drugs known to prolong QT interval where possible. There may be certain circumstances when haloperidol may be used despite contraindications (e.g. distressed individual with an incurable condition at the end of life, limited or no reversible causes of agitation and distress). Seek senior advice before prescribing. A list of drugs that can prolong QT interval can be found at http://crediblemeds.org and further information can also be found in the Medicines Update Extra (MUE 08) Drug Induced Prolongation article available at www.ggcmedicines.org.uk.
**Levomepromazine can cause sedation, hypotension and prolong QT interval. Use with caution.
|Nausea and vomiting|
Use guidelines to identify possible causes and suitable treatments (see www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk)
Prescribe regularly until symptoms controlled.
If vomiting regularly, switch to SC route, ideally administer via syringe pump over 24 hours.
Avoid pharmacologically antagonistic combinations e.g. cyclizine and metoclopramide.
Metoclopramide: use with caution in young, especially female patients, because of risk of extrapyramidal side effects.
In intractable nausea and vomiting, low dose levomepromazine is used as second line treatment. The 6mg tablet is an unlicensed preparation and may be available from your hospital pharmacy. Advice about its use should be obtained from the Palliative Care team.
Therapeutic options: refer to nausea and vomiting guidance at www.palliativecareguidelines.scot.nhs.uk.
Prophylactic antiemetics may be necessary (when opioid initiated and/or opioid dose increased):
N.B. Haloperidol and QT prolongation- refer to 'Restlessness' section above for guidance.
Content last updated October 2018